Dasypogoninae sensu Dikow 2009a

Diogmites properans , image © Michael Thomas.


  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – maxillae proximally high and distal tip distinctly narrower (28)
    – pharyngeal pump laterally with sclerotized ring, but medio-anteriorly unsclerotized (40)
    – setae on dorsal postpedicel present (55)
    – more than two macrosetae on median occipital sclerite present (65)
    – large spine originating anteroventrally on prothoracic tibiae (106)
  • Notes:
    The Dasypogoninae sensu previous authors has been suspected to be non-monophyletic. However, the Dasypogon-like robber flies recognised by Dikow (2009) within this taxon represent genera that have always been believed to form a monophyletic clade. The large spine on the prothoracic tibiae has been used as a diagnostic character for this group (e.g., Hull 1962; Papavero 1973). Based on the phylogenetic hypothesis derived by Dikow (2009) this spine has been independently derived at least once in the Australian Brachyrhopalini and Chrysopogonini (Brachyrhopalinae). The spine has been reduced at least once within Dasypogoninae in Archilestris magnificus. Only Thereutria possesses a small S-shaped spur on the prothoracic tibiae, which is independently derived in Cophura, Leptarthrus, and Nicocles (all Brachyrhopalinae). Eleven subordinate taxa have been proposed to divide the Dasypogoninae by previous authors and with the exception of Archilaphriinae, all are included in Dikow (2009) although some of them are only represented by a single species. Of these available and valid family-group taxa, eight are here recognised within Dasypogoninae and Brachyrhopalini and Chrysopogonini are transferred to the newly erected Brachyrhopalinae.
  • Blepharepiini: Blepharepium

  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – maxillary palpus one-segmented (11)
    – ventral margin of postmentum of labium with median groove in distal part (19)
    – prosternum and proepisternum fused and prosternum narrow above coxa (74)
    – ventral metathoracic femora lacking macrosetae (116)
    – metathoracic tibiae arched medially (119)
    – crossvein r-m in distal half of discal cell (138)
    – female spermathecae occupying more than posterior three abdominal segments (182)
    – female furcal apodeme developed as short plate-like apodeme (185)
    – male S8 reduced, all other tergites and sternites well developed (193)
    – male gonostyli positioned medially on gonocoxites (206)
    – male ejaculatory apodeme triangular in anterior view (two lateral and one dorsal surface) (220)
  • Notes:
    The Blepharepiini was described by Papavero (1973b) for the single Neotropical genus Blepharepium and the present analysis by Dikow (2009) supports its morphological distinctness as no other genus groups with Blepharepium.
  • Dasypogonini: Dasypogon

  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – all ommatidia of same size (46)
    – postpedicel cylindrical with same diameter throughout (54)
    – regular setae form postpronotal setae (no macrosetae) (73)
    – medial setae on posterior scutum absent (96)
    – cell m3 closed (135)
    – cell cup closed (136)
    – microtrichia on posterior wing margin arranged in two divergent planes (141)
    – female anterior T8 simple, no apodeme present (169)
    – female S8 plate-like with hypogynial valves separated and surrounded by membrane (170)
    – male gonocoxal apodeme absent (204)
    – male gonostyli positioned medially on gonocoxites (206)
    – male subepandrial sclerite with distal projections (209)
  • Notes:
    Of the included species in Dikow (2009), Lestomyia fraudiger and Austrosaropogon nigrinus are classified as Dasypogonini by Hull (1962) and Papavero (1973). Lestomyia groups with other Dasypogoninae, but not with Dasypogon itself and is excluded here from this taxon. The Australian genus Austrosaropogon groups with other Australian genera in Brachyrhopalinae.
  • Lastauracini: Neodiogmites

  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – presutural dorsocentral setae present (92)
  • Notes:
    The Lastauracini was described by Papavero (1973) for 10 Neotropical genera and Diogmites, which is distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The original type genus is Lastaurax, but this genus has been synonymised with Neodiogmites by Artigas & Papavero (1988), which is now the type genus of this family group. Diogmites does not group with Neodiogmites in Dikow (2009) and therefore the Lastauracini is restricted to the single included genus Neodiogmites.
  • Megapodini: Cyrtophrys, Deromyia, Megapoda, Pegesimallus, Pseudorus, Senobasis

  • Autapomorphies:
    – two distinct macrosetae on median occipital sclerite (65)
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – regular setae form ocellar setae (62)
    – regular setae form antepronotum setae (69)
    – one notopleural seta present (88)
    – only regular setae on lateral metathoracic coxae (no macrosetae) (112)
    – male epandrium and hypandrium at least partially fused (201).
  • Notes:
    Megapodini was described by Carrera (1949), and Hull (1962) later labeled it as a separate subfamily taxon. This taxon has been extensively reviewed by Papavero (1975).
  • For more information on the subtribal taxa see Dikow (2009).
    – Megapodini: Cyrtophryina: Cyrtophrys, Deromyia
    – Megapodini: Lagodiina: Pegesimallus
    – Megapodini: Megapodina: Megapoda, Pseudorus
    – Megapodini: Senobasina: Senobasis
  • Molobratiini: Molobratia

  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – mystax extending over lower facial half (7)
    – ventral margin of postmentum of labium entirely smooth (19)
    – anterior ommatidia all same size (46)
    – macrosetae on lateral margin of frons (dorsal to antennal insertion) present (49)
    – apical “seta-like” sensory element situated apically on stylus (57)
    – stylus composed of one element (58)
    – postsutural dorsocentral setae absent (94)
    – cell m3 open (135)
    – female T8 anteriorly lacking apodeme (169)
    – female S8 plate-like and slightly emarginate mediodistally (170)
    – female without spurs on ovipositor (174)
    – female spermathecal reservoir formed by more or less expanded and coiled ducts (180)
    – male sperm sac appearing weakly sclerotized (218)
  • Notes:
    Hull (1962) placed Molobratia in his Dasypogoninae: Dioctriini. The Molobratiini was described by Lehr (1999) originally in Dasypogoninae, but has been grouped in Dioctriinae based on the lack of acanthophorite spurs on the ovipositor and the shape of S8 by the same author (Lehr, 2001). The placement of Molobratia within Dioctriinae is not supported in the present study as it is positioned deeply within Dasypogoninae.
  • Saropogonini: Saropogon

  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – macrosetae on dorsal frons (dorsal to antennal insertion) present (49)
    – female spermathecal reservoir formed by more or less expanded and coiled ducts (180)
    – male subepandrial plate with lateral protuberances (211)
  • Notes:
    The Saropogonini was originally described by Hardy (1926) for the Australian genera Rachiopogon, Erythropogon, Questopogon, and Neosaropogon, and the more widespread genera Saropogon, Stenopogon, and Clinopogon. Oldroyd (1974a, 1974b) used the taxon for a large number of genera, but it is restricted here to the single genus Saropogon.
  • Thereutriini: Thereutria

  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – ocellar setae formed by regular setae (no macrosetae) (62)
    – two notopleural setae present (88)
    – presutural dorsocentral setae present (92)
    – prothoracic tibiae with small S-shaped spur, which originates on posteroventral surface (106)
    – regular setae on median metathoracic trochanter (no macrosetae) (114)
    – cell r1 closed, R1 and R2+3 as stalk vein present (131)
    – female S8 plate-like and hypogynial valves separated and surrounded by membrane (170)
    – male hypopygium not rotated (195)
    – male gonocoxites and hypandrium fused (202)
  • Notes:
    The Thereutriini was described by Hull (1962) to accommodate the Australian genera Metalaphria and Thereutria.
  • Genera not placed within above tribal taxa:

  • Archilestris, Diogmites, Lestomyia
  • Notes:
    Archilestris, lacking a prothoracic tibial spine, is grouped within Stenopogoninae: Enigmomorphini by Artigas & Papavero (1991) and is here transferred to the Dasypogoninae, Diogmites is considered to be a Lastauracini, and Lestomyia has been grouped within Dasypogonini by Papavero (1973).