Tillobromatinae sensu Dikow 2009a

Hypenetes stigmatias CODI.


  • Hypenetes, Lycostommyia, Tillobroma
  • Autapomorphies: None.
  • Additional apomorphic character states:
    – maxillary stipites fused medially, but with V-shaped indentation (14)
    – female spermathecal reservoir formed by more or less expanded and coiled ducts (180)
  • Notes:
    The taxon Tillobromatini was described by Artigas & Papavero (1991) for the distinct New World genera Coleomyia, Euthrixius, Grajahua, Scylaticina, Scylaticodes, Tillobroma, and Zabrotica. Tillobroma was described by Hull (1962) as a subgenus of the South African genus Hypenetes highlighting the morphological similarity between these flies from different continents. Artigas et al. (2005) based a divergence time estimate of 180 Million years on the assumption of a sister-group relationship between Hypenetes and Tillobroma, which is not supported by Dikow (2009). Hypenetes and another South African genus, Lycostommyia, form a clade supported by a number of apomorphic character states and these two genera together form the sister group to Tillobroma. The western North American genus Coleomyia is not recovered within Tillobromatini and is placed as incertae sedis by Dikow (2009). As the genera Hypenetes, Lycostommyia, and Tillobroma form a clade distinct from other Dasypogoninae and Stenopogoninae, they are recognised as a separate taxon. This taxon is biogeographically interesting, as the extant representatives are restricted to southern Africa and South America.